2.1 Statement of Purpose
It is the position of the ILPE that a polygraph examination, properly administered by a well-trained and competent polygraph examiner and using a validated testing technique, has a high degree of accuracy in detecting truthfulness or deception. In order to ensure this high degree of accuracy, the ILPE establishes for its membership the following Standards of Practice.
2.2.1 Evidentiary Examination: A polygraph examination, the written and stated purpose for which, agreed to by the parties involved, is to provide the diagnostic opinion of the examiner as evidence in a pending judicial proceeding. This is not intended to prevent admission of a confession as evidence obtained during the examination.
22.214.171.124 Investigative Examination: A polygraph examination intended to supplement and assist an investigation and about which the examiner has not been informed and does not reasonably believe that the results of the examination will be tendered for admission as evidence in a court of record. Pre-employment examinations shall be deemed to be investigative examinations.
126.96.36.199 Validated Testing Technique: A polygraph testing technique, for which exists a body of internationally acceptable scientific studies.
188.8.131.52 Specific Issue Polygraph Examination: A single-issue examination, generally administered in conjunction with a criminal investigation.
2.3 Polygraph Examiner
2.3.1 The polygraph examiner shall meet the training and educational requirements of an ILPE or an APA (American Polygraph Association) accredited polygraph school.
2.3.2 Evidentiary examinations shall be conducted only by Full or Associate members. Intern members shall conduct evidentiary examinations only under the supervision of a full or associate member.
2.4 Polygraph Examinee
2.4.1 The polygraph examiner shall make reasonable efforts to determine if the examinee is a fit subject for testing. Basic inquiries into the medical and psychological condition of the examinee, as well as any recent drug use, should be made. Mental, physical or medical conditions of the examinee that should be observable or that should be reasonably known by the polygraph examiner should also be evaluated prior to testing. No test should be conducted where valid results could not be reasonably foreseen.
2.4.2 During the pretest interview the polygraph examiner will specifically inquire of the person to be examined whether or not he or she is currently receiving or has in the past received medical or psychiatric treatment or consultation.
2.4.3 If the polygraph examiner has a reasonable doubt concerning the ability of an examinee to safely undergo an examination, a release from the examinee and his or her physician shall be obtained.
3.5 Instrumentation and Recording
3.5.1 Polygraph examinations shall be conducted with ILPE approved instrumentation (manufactured by Lafayette Instrument Company) or APA approved instrumentation and shall record, at a minimum, the following channels or components:
184.108.40.206 Respiration patterns recorded by pneumograph components. Thoracic and abdominal patterns shall be recorded separately, using two pneumograph components.
220.127.116.11 Electrodermal activity reflecting relative changes in the conductance or resistance of current by the epidermal tissue.
18.104.22.168 Cardiograph to record relative changes in pulse rate, pulse amplitude, and relative blood volume.
22.214.171.124 Activity sensors to detect and record movements of an examinee.
3.5.2 While not required, the application of the plethysmograph is approved and recommended by the ILPE for measuring finger pulse and blood volume.
3.5.3 Physiological recording during each test shall be continuous, and shall be of sufficient amplitude to be easily readable by the polygraph examiner and any reviewing polygraph examiner. Pneumograph and cardiograph tracings over one-half inch in amplitude will be considered of sufficient size to be easily readable.
3.5.4 The polygraph shall be given a functionality or calibration test consistent with manufacturer recommendations. The functionality or calibration test shall be administered prior to all evidentiary examinations. At a minimum, these tests shall be maintained by the polygraph examiner for no less than one year.
3.6 Test Location and Conditions
3.6.1 Conditions under which testing occurs shall be free from distractions that would interfere with the ability of the examinee to appropriately focus on the issues being addressed. The examination site should be relatively free from outside noise and distraction.
3.7.1 The polygraph examiner shall, prior to the examination, dedicate sufficient time to identify the issues and any potential problems in any area of testing.
3.8 Pretest Practices
3.8.1 The polygraph examiner shall obtain information sufficient to identify the examinee.
3.8.2 The polygraph examiner shall obtain the written consent of the examinee prior to testing.
3.8.3 Sufficient time should be spent to ensure that the examinee has a reasonable understanding of the polygraph process and the requirement for cooperation.
3.8.4 Sufficient time shall be spent to discuss the issues to be tested and to allow the examinee to fully explain his or her answers.
3.8.5 Sufficient time shall be spent to ensure the examinee recognizes and understands each question. Attempts by the examinee to rationalize should be neutralized by a pretest discussion in which the examinee demonstrates he or she understands the test questions to have the same meaning as does the polygraph examiner. Questions shall be asked in a form that would prevent a reasonable person, facing a significant issue, from successfully engaging in a rationalization process to avoid culpability.
3.8.6 The polygraph examiner shall not express bias in any manner regarding the truthfulness of the examinee prior to the completion of testing.
3.9.1 The polygraph examiner shall use a validated testing technique. Evidentiary examinations shall not materially deviate from the protocol of a validated testing technique. Where investigative examinations deviate from the format or protocol of a validated testing technique, such deviation shall, where the test is subjected to quality control by a reviewing polygraph examiner, be noted and justified in writing. For the resolution of specific issues, each polygraph examination shall be administered using a validated testing technique.
3.9.2 A stimulation test or acquaintance test shall be required for all evidentiary examinations. A stimulation or acquaintance test should be conducted for all initial examinations for any specific issue or investigative examination.
3.9.3 Questions shall be asked with clarity and distinctiveness.
3.9.4 Questions shall be balanced in terms of length and impact for each category of questions utilized. Questions used in the assessment of truth and deception shall be preceded and followed by time intervals of not less than 20 seconds. When approved validated research supports the use of another time interval, that time span shall prevail.
3.9.5 The polygraph examiner shall collect a sufficient number of charts so as to acquire sufficient data for proper evaluation, in conformance with a validated testing technique.
3.9.6 Standardized chart markings, recognized and utilized within the polygraph profession should be employed.
3.9.7 An audio or an audio/video recording of the pretest and in-test phases shall be made and maintained for all types of polygraph examinations.
3.10.1 The polygraph examiner shall employ quantitative or numerical scoring for all evidentiary examinations and for all specific issue investigative examinations.
3.10.2 The polygraph examiner’s notes of the test evaluation shall have sufficient clarity and precision so that another polygraph examiner could read them.
3.10.3 The polygraph examiner shall not disclose the results of the examination until it has been adequately and sufficiently analyzed.
3.10.4 The polygraph examiner shall maintain the confidentiality of his/her work conducted under privilege until a release by the client is obtained.
3.10.5 The polygraph examiner subject to a quality control evaluation of a case shall fully disclose all relevant information regarding the case under review. Any doubts as to relevancy shall be resolved through disclosure.